Protecting Pollinators

Wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) can attract pollinators like this regal fritilary (Speyeria idalia).

Wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) can attract pollinators like this regal fritilary (Speyeria idalia).

Recommended Indiana-native Plants for Attracting Pollinators

Ellen Jacquart, The Nature Conservancy of Indiana; Robert P. Jean, Environmental Solutions & Innovations, Inc.; Melinda M. Appold, Purdue Horticulture and Landscape Architecture; David Gorden, Mark M. Holeman, Inc.; Heather Reynolds, Indiana University Department of Biology and Stranger's Hill Organics


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Pollinators provide pollination services for wild plants and many of our crop species, too – one in three bites of food is due to cross-pollination by pollinators. Pollination is important for maintaining genetic diversity in plants and ensuring adequate fruit and seed production for crops, wildflowers, shrubs, and trees. Our forests, prairies, meadows, and gardens would look much different without the help of our pollinators.

Plant Information

The table provides information about many Indiana-native plant species. Native plants are preferable because of their close partnerships with native pollinators. The Plant Information columns provide Sun and Soil Moisture requirements, plant Height, plant Flower Color, and plant Bloom Time.

If checked, the Hard to Find column designates a species that may be difficult to find for sale, but is both very important to pollinators and very common in remnant forests. These hard-to-find species may already be on your land, so watch for them and conserve them if possible.

If checked, the Ephemeral column refers to species that come up each year in the spring, produce flowers and fruits, and then die-back by late May. While they are only aboveground for a few months each year, these ephemerals are particularly important to pollinators, because so few species are in bloom in early spring.

Pollinator Connection

The Pollinator Connection columns indicate which pollinator groups (Bee, Beetle, Butterfly/Moth, Fly, Hummingbird, and Wasp) use each plant species.

The Special Notes column notes whether a plant is a host for larval butterflies or moths or if it attracts specialist bees (those bees which only pollinate a few plant species).

The Pollinator Magnets column, if checked, indicates a plant species that attracts an abundance of pollinators, or a very high diversity of pollinators, based on literature and field experience.

Where Can You Buy These Plants?

Many of these plant species may be available from any plant retailer. Others will require you to find a business that specializes in native plants.

The Indiana Native Plant & Wildflower Society (INPAWS) certifies Grow Native businesses with a wide selection of Indiana native plants at grownative indiana.org/buy-native. Be careful you purchase plants that have not been treated with neonicotinoid insecticides (commonly used on ornamental plants). Avoid applying insecticides in your planting, because they may kill or injure pollinators.

Wildflowers

Plant Information =   Pollinator Connection =

Common Name Latin Name Plant Information Pollinator Connection
    Sun Soil Moisture Height Flower Color Bloom Time Hard to Find Eph-
emeral
Bee Beetle Butterfly
/Moth
Fly Humm-
ingbird
Wasp Special Notes Pollinator Magnets
    Full Sun Part Shade Shade Wet Wet Mesic Mesic Dry Mesic Dry
sweet flag Acorus calamus X - - X X - - - 2’-3’ green spring - - - X - - - - - -
nodding wild onion Allium cernuum X X - - - X X X 1’-2’ pink summer - - X - - - - - - -
rue anemone Anemonellathalictroides X X X - X X X - 1' white spring - - X - - - - - - -
columbine Aquilegia canadensis X X X - - X X X 1’-3’ red-yellow spring - - X X - - X - - -
goat’s beard Aruncus dioicus X X - - X X - - 4’-6’ white spring - - X X X - - - dusky azure host *
wild ginger Asarum canadense X X X - - X X X <1’ maroon spring - - - - - X - - - -
marsh milkweed Asclepias incarnata X - - X X X - - 3’-4’ pink summer - - X X X - - - monarch host *
Sullivant’s milkweed Asclepias sullivantii X - - - X X - - 3’-4’ pink summer - - X X X - - - monarch host -
common milkweed Asclepias syriaca X - - - X X X X 3’-5’ pink summer - - X X X - - - monarch host -
butterflyweed Asclepias tuberosa X - - - - X X X 1’-2’ orange summer - - X - X - - - monarch host -
whorled milkweed Asclepias verticillata X - - - - X X X 1’-2’ white summer - - X - X - - - monarch host -
sky-blue aster Aster azureus X - - - - X X X 1’-2’ blue fall - - X X - - - - pearl crescent host -
heart-leaved blue wood aster Aster cordifolius - X X - - X X - 1’-3’ blue fall - - X X - - - - pearl crescent host -
heath aster Aster ericoides X - - - - X X X 1’-2’ white fall - - X X X X - X pearl crescent host *
shining aster Aster fi mus X - - X X X - - 3’-4’ lavender fall - - X X - - - - pearl crescent host -
smooth aster Aster laevis X - - - X X X X 3’-5’ blue fall - - X X - - - - pearl crescent host -
calico aster Aster laterifl    us X X X - X X X X 1’-3’ white fall - - X X - X - X pearl crescent host -
New England aster Aster novae-angliae X - - X X X X - 3’-5’ purple fall - - X X X X - - pearl crescent host -
swamp aster Aster puniceus X X - X X - - - 3’-6’ lavender fall - - X X - - - - pearl crescent host -
Short’s aster Aster shortii - - X - - X X - 2’-3’ purple fall - - X X - - - - pearl crescent host -
flat-topped aster Aster umbellatus X - - X X X - - 3’-5’ white fall - - X X - - - - pearl crescent host -
blue false indigo Baptisia australis X - - - X X - - 2’-4’ blue spring - - X - - - - - silver-spotted skipper host -
white false indigo Baptisia leucantha X - - - X X X X 3’-4’ white summer - - X - - - - - - -
cream false indigo Baptisia leucophaea X - - - - X X X 1’ cream spring - - X - - - - - - -
tickseed sunflower Bidens aristosa X - - X X - - - 1’-4’ yellow summer/ fall X - X - X X - X dainty sulphur host -
false aster Boltonia latisquama X - - - X X - - 3’-6’ white summer - - X X X X - X - *
marsh marigold Caltha palustris X X X X X - - - 1’-2’ yellow spring - - X - - X - - - -
spring cress Cardamine bulbosa X X X X X - - - <1’ white spring X X X - - X - - bee specialist *
cut-leaved toothwort Cardamine concetenata - X X - - X X X <1’ pink spring X X X - - X - - bee specialist; West Virginia white host -
wild senna Cassia hebecarpa X - - - X X - - 3’-5’ yellow summer - - X X - - - - cloudless sulphur and sleepy orange host -
blue cohosh Caulophyllum thalictroides - X X - X X - - 2’-4’ green spring X - X X - X - - - -
white turtlehead Chelone glabra X X - X X - - - 2’-4’ white summer - - X - X - - - Baltimore checkerspot host -
pink turtlehead Chelone obliqua X X - X X - - - 2’-4’ pink summer - - X - X - - - Baltimore checkerspot host -
spring beauty Claytonia virginica X X X X X - - - <1’ pink spring X X X - - X - - bee specialist *
blue-eyed Mary Collinsia verna - X X X X - - - <1’ blue spring X X X - - X - - - *
lance-leaf coreopsis Coreopsis lanceolata X - - - - - X X 1’-2’ yellow spring/ summer - - X - X X - - - -
plains coreopsis Coreopsis palmata X - - - - X X X 1’-2’ yellow summer - - X X X X - X - -
tall coreopsis Coreopsis tripteris X - - - X X X - 6’-8’ yellow summer - - X - X X - X - -
purple prairie clover Dalea purpurea X - - - - X X X 1’-2’ purple summer - - X X X - - - dogface sulphur host -
dwarf larkspur Delphinium tricorne - X X - X X X - <1’ purple spring X X X - X X - - - -
pale purple coneflower Echinacea pallida X - - - X X X X 2’-4’ lavender spring/ summer - - X - X - - - - -
purple coneflower Echinacea purpurea X - - - X X X X 3’-4’ purple summer - - X - X - - - - -
harbinger of spring Erigenia bulbosa - X X - X X X X <1’ white spring X X X - - X - - very early resource -
rattlesnake master Eryngium yuccifolium X - - - X X X X 3’-4’ white summer/ fall - - X X X X - X black swallowtail host *
white trout lily Erythronium albidum - X X - X X X X <1’ white spring X - X - - X - - - -
yellow trout lily Erythroniun americanum - X X - X X X X <1’ yellow spring X - X - - X - - - -
tall boneset Eupatorium altissima X X - - X X X X 3’-4’ white fall X - X X X X - X - *
blue mist flower Eupatorium coelestinum X - - - X X X - 1’-2’ blue fall - - X X X X - - - -
hollow joe-pye weed Eupatorium fi X - X X X - - - 4’-9’ pink fall - - X X - - - - - -
spotted joe-pye weed Eupatorium maculatum X - - X X - - - 4’-6’ pink fall - - X - X X - - - -
sweet joe-pye weed Eupatorium purpureum - X X - X X X - 4’-6’ pink summer - - X X X X - - - -
white snakeroot Eupatorium rugosum - X X - - - - X 2’-4’ white fall X - X X - - - X - -
late boneset Eupatorium serotinum - X X - - X X - 3’-6’ white fall - - X X X X - X - *
queen of the prairie Filipendula rubra X - - X X - - - 4’-7’ pink summer - - X X - X - - - -
bottle gentian Gentiana andrewsii X - - X X X - - 1’-2’ blue fall - - X - - - - - - -
wild geranium Geranium maculatum - X X - - X X - 1’ lt. purp. spring - - X - X X - - bee specialist *
autumn sneezeweed Helenium autumnale X - - X X X - - 3’-5’ yellow fall - - X - X X - - silvery checkerspot host -
woodland sunflower Helianthus divaricatus X X - X X - - - 2’-6’ yellow summer - - X X - X - - bee specialist, painted lady host *
downy sunflower Helianthus mollis X - - - - X X X 2’-4’ yellow summer - - X X X X - - bee specialist, painted lady host *
western sunflower Helianthus occidentalis X - - - - X X X 2’-3’ yellow summer - - X X X X - - bee specialist, painted lady host -
showy sunflower Helianthus rigidus X - - - - X X X 3’-5’ yellow summer - - X X X X - - bee specialist, painted lady host -
false sunflower Heliopsis helianthoides X - - - X X X - 3’-5’ yellow summer - - X - X X - - - -
hepatica Hepatica nobilis - X X - X X X - <1’ purple spring X - X - - X - - very early resource, pollen only -
alum root Heuchera americana X - - - - X X - 1’-2’ wht-grn summer - - X - - - - - - -
swamp rose mallow Hibiscus moschuetos X - - X X - - - 3’-6’ wht-pink summer - - X - - - - - bee specialist, common checkered-skipper host -
great waterleaf Hydrophyllum appendiculatum - X X - - X X - 1’-2’ lavender spring X X X - - X - - bee specialist *
blue flag iris Iris virginica shrevei X - - X X X - - 2’-3’ blue spring/ summer - - X - X - - - - -
rough blazing star Liatris aspera X - - - - X X X 1’-3’ purple summer/ fall - - X X X X - - - *
meadow blazing star Liatris ligulistylis X - - - X X - - 1’-3’ rose/ purple summer - - X X X X - - - *
prairie blazing star Liatris pycnostachya X - - - X X X - 3’-5’ purple summer - - X X X X - - - *
savanna blazing star Liatris scariosa nieuwlandii X - - - - X X X 2’-3’ purple summer - - X X X X - - - *
dense blazing star Liatris spicata X - - X X X - - 3’-5’ purple summer - - X X X X - - - *
cardinal flower Lobelia cardinalis X - X X X - - - 1’-3’ red summer - - X - - - X - - -
great blue lobelia Lobelia siphilitica X - X X X X - - 1’-3’ blue summer - - X - X X - - - -
lupine Lupinus perennis X X - - - - X X 1’-2’ blue spring - - X - - - - - pollen only; eastern tailed-blue and frosted elfin host -
fringed loosestrife Lysimachia ciliata X X - X X X - - 1’-4’ yellow summer X - X - - - - - bee specialist -
prairie loosestrife Lysimachia quadrifl    a X - X X X X - - 1’-3’ yellow summer X - X - - - - - bee specialist -
Virginia bluebells Mertensia virginica - X X - X X - - 1’-2’ blue spring - - X - - - - - - -
monkeyflower Mimulus ringens X - - X X - - - 2’-4’ lavender summer - - X - - - - - common buckeye host -
bergamot Monarda fi X - - - X X X X 2’-4’ lavender summer - - X - X - - X - *
prairie sundrops Oenothera pilosella X - - - X X - - 1’ yellow summer - - X - X - - - - -
heart-leaved golden ragwort Packera aurea X X X - X X - - 1’-2’ yellow spring X - X - - X - - - -
wild quinine Parthenium integrifolium X - - - X X X - 2’-3’ white summer - - X - X X - X - -
arrow arum Peltandra virginica X - - X - - - - 2’-3’ green summer X - - - - X - - fly specialist -
smooth penstemon Penstemon calycosus X - X - X X - - 2’-3’ purple spring/ summer - - X - - - - - - -
foxglove penstemon Penstemon digitalis X - - - X X X - 2’-3’ white summer - - X - - - - - - -
hairy penstemon Penstemon hirsutus X - - - X X X X 1’-2’ purple spring/ summer - - X - - - - - - -
fernleaf phacelia Phacelia bipinnatifi - X X - X X - - 1’-2’ purple spring X X X - - X - - bee specialist -
obedient plant Physostegia virginiana X - - X X X - - 2’-4’ pink summer - - X - X - X - - -
Jacob’s ladder Polemonium reptans - X X - X X - - 1’-3’ purple spring - - X - - X - - bee specialist -
prairie cinquefoil Potentilla arguta X - - - - X X X 2’-3’ sulfur summer - - X - - - - - - -
narrow leaf mountain mint Pycnanthemum tenuifolium X - - - X X X X 1’-2’ white summer - - X - X X - X - -
common mountain mint Pycnanthemum virginianum X - - X X X - - 1’-2’ white summer - - X - X X - X - -
yellow coneflower Ratibida pinnata X - - - - X X - 3’-5’ yellow summer - - X X - X - X - -
orange coneflower Rudbeckia fulgida speciosa X - - - X X X - 2’-3’ gold summer/ fall - - X - X X - X - -
black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta X - - - - X X X 1’-3’ yellow summer - - X - X X - X - -
sweet black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia subtomentosa X - - - X X X - 3’-5’ yellow summer/ fall - - X - X X - X - -
common arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia X - - X - - - - 1’-3’ white summer X - X - - - - - - -
lizard’s tail Saururus cernuus X X X X - - - - 1’-2’ white summer - - X - - - - - - -
downy skullcap Scutellaria incana X X X - X X X - 2’-3’ blue summer - - X - - - - - - -
wild stonecrop Sedum ternatum X X X - - X - - 3” white spring - - X - - - - - - -
royal catchfly Silene regia X X - - - X X - 2’-4’ red summer - - X - - - X - - -
rosinweed Silphium integrifolium X - - - X X X X 3’-6’ yellow summer - - X X - X - - - -
compass plant Silphium laciniatum X - - - X X X X 5’-8’ yellow summer - - X X - X - - - -
cup plant Silphium perfoliatum X - - - X X - - 5’-9’ yellow summer - - X X X X - X - -
prairie dock Silphium terebinthinaceum X - - - X X X - 5’-10’ yellow summer - - X X - - X - - -
blue-stemmed goldenrod Solidago caesia - X X - - X X X 1’-3’ yellow fall - - X X - X - - bee specialist -
zigzag goldenrod S olidag o fl       aulis - X X - - X X X 1’-3’ yellow fall - - X X - X - - bee specialist -
early goldenrod Solidago juncea X - - - - X X X 1’-2’ yellow summer - - X X X X - X bee specialist *
gray goldenrod Solidago nemoralis X - - - - X X X 1’-2’ yellow fall - - X X X X - X bee specialist *
Ohio goldenrod S olidag o ohioensis X - - X X X - - 2’-3’ yellow fall - - X X X X - X bee specialist -
Riddell’s goldenrod Solidago riddellii X - - X X X - - 2’-4’ yellow fall - - X X X X - X bee specialist -


Trees and Shrubs

Trees and shrubs are a very important part of any pollinator planting, providig great amounts of nectar and pollen for pollinators.

Plant Information =   Pollinator Connection =

Common Name Latin Name Plant Information Pollinator Connection
    Sun Soil Moisture Height Flower Color Bloom Time Hard to Find Eph-
emeral
Bee Beetle Butterfly
/Moth
Fly Humm-
ingbird
Wasp Special Notes Pollinator Magnets
    Full Sun Part Shade Shade Wet Wet Mesic Mesic Dry Mesic Dry
red maple Acer rubrum X X X - X X X - to 95’ yellow spring - - X - X X - X - -
sugar maple Acer saccharum X X X - - X - - to 100’ yellow spring - - X - X X - X - -
Ohio buckeye Aesculus glabra X X X - X X - - to 35’ yellow spring - - X - - - X - - -
serviceberry Amelanchierarborea X X X - X X X - 10-25’ white spring - - X X - X - - striped hairstreak host -
leadplant Amorpha canescens X - - - - X X X 1’-3’ purple summer - - X - - - - - southern dogface host *
indigo bush Amorpha fruticosa X X - X X - - - 4’-16’ purple summer - - X X - - - - - -
devil’s walking stick Aralia spinosa X X - - - X X - 10’-20’ white summer X - X X X X - X - *
black chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa X X - - X X - - 2’-4’ white summer - - X - - X - - coral hairstreak host -
pawpaw Asimina triloba - X X - X X - - 10’-40’ purple spring - - - X - X - - zebra swallowtail host -
New Jersey tea Ceanothus americanus X X - - - X X X 1’-3’ white summer - - X - X X - X summer azure and mottled duskywing host - *
buttonbush Cephalanthes occidentalis X X - X X X - - 6’-12’ white summer - - X - X X - X - -
redbud Cercis canadensis X X X - - X X - 20’-30’ pink spring - - X X X X - X - *
silky dogwood Cornus amomum X X - - X X - - 6’-12’ white summer - - X - - - - - bee specialist, summer azure host -
grey dogwood Cornus racemosa X X - - X X X - 10’-15’ white spring - - X - - - - - bee specialist, summer azure host -
persimmon Diospyros virginiana X X - - - X X X to 60’ white spring - - X - - X - - - -
winterberry IleXverticillata X X X X X X - - 6’-15’ white summer - - X - - - - - Henry’s elfin host -
spicebush Lindera benzoin - X X - X X - - 6’-12’ yellow spring - - - - X X - - eastern tiger , black, and spicebush swallowtail host -
tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera X X - - X X X - 70’-100’ yellow spring - - X - - - - - eastern tiger swallowtail host -
ninebark Physocarpus opulifolius X X - - - X X - 5’-8’ white spring/ summer - - X X X - - - - -
shrubby cinquefoil Potentilla fruticosa X X - X X X - - 2’-4’ yellow summer - - X - X - - - Dorcas copper host -
black cherry Prunus serotina X X X - - X X - 50’-80’ white spring - - X - - - - - eastern tiger swallowtail, red-spotted purple and coral hairstreak host - *
fragrant sumac Rhus aromatica X X - - - X X X 2’-6’ yellow spring - - X X - X - X - -
winged sumac Rhus copallinum X X - - - X X X 7’-15’ green summer - - X X - X - X red-banded hairstreak host *
prairie willow SaliXhumilis X X - - X X X - 2’-8’ green spring - - X X X X - X bee specialist, eastern swallowtail and mourning cloak host -
black willow SaliXnigra X X - X X - - - 30’-60’ green spring - - X X X X - X bee specialist, eastern swallowtail and mourning cloak host -
meadowsweet Spirea alba X - - X X - - - 2’-6’ white summer - - X X X X - - - -
steeplebush Spirea tomentosa X - - X X - - - 2’-4’ pink summer - - X - X - - - - -
coralberry Symphoricarpos orbiculatus X X X - - X X - 3-6’ white summer - - X X X X - X - -
American basswood Tilia americana X X X - - X - - to 95’ white summer - - X X X X - X - -
highbush blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum X X - - X X - - 3’-15’ white spring - - X - X - - - - *
maple leaf viburnum Viburnum acerifolium X X X - X X X - 4’-6’ white summer - - X - X X - - Henry’s elfin host -
arrowwood viburnum Viburnum dentatum X X X - X X X - 3’-9’ white summer - - X - X X - - Henry’s elfin host -




Grasses and Sedges

Grasses nad sedges are wind pollinated and so aren't typically a food resource for adult pollinators; however, they can be important larval food hosts and provide important structure in grassland plantings. Here are just a few of the common native grasses and sedges you might choose from.

Plant Information =   Pollinator Connection =

Common Name Latin Name Plant Information Pollinator Connection
    Sun Soil Moisture Height Flower Color Bloom Time Hard to Find Eph-
emeral
Bee Beetle Butterfly
/Moth
Fly Humm-
ingbird
Wasp Special Notes Pollinator Magnets
    Full Sun Part Shade Shade Wet Wet Mesic Mesic Dry Mesic Dry

big bluestem

Andropogon gerardii

X

 

 

 

X

X

 

 

5’-8’

 

summer/ fall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

byssus skipper host

 

side-oats grama

Bouteloua curtipendula

X

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

1’-3’

 

summer/ fall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

woodland brome

Bromus pubescens

 

X

X

 

 

X

X

 

1’-3’

 

summer

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

blue-joint grass

Calamagrostis canadensis

X

 

 

X

X

 

 

 

2’-4’

 

summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

yellow fox sedge

Carexannectens var.
xanthocarpa

X

 

 

X

X

X

 

 

2’-3’

 

spring/ summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bracted oak sedge

Carexcephalophora

X

X

X

 

 

 

X

X

1’

 

spring

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lance-fruited oval sedge

Carexscoparia

X

X

 

X

X

 

 

 

2’-3’

 

spring/ summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

tussock sedge

Carexstricta

X

X

 

X

X

 

 

 

2’

 

spring/ summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appalachian and eyed browns, mulberry wing, and black dash host

 

fox sedge

Carexvulpinoidea

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

 

2’-3’

 

spring/ summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canada wild rye

Elymus canadensis

X

X

 

 

 

X

X

 

3’-4’

 

summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

riverbank wild rye

Elymus riparius

 

X

X

 

X

X

 

 

3’-5’

 

summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virginia wild rye

Elymus virginicus

 

X

X

 

X

X

 

 

2’-3’

 

summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bottlebrush grass

Elymus hystrix v. hystrix

 

X

X

 

 

X

X

 

3’-5’

 

summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

northern pearly-eye host

 

switch grass

Panicum virgatum

X

 

 

 

X

X

 

 

3’-5’

 

summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hobomok skipper, Indian skipper, and Leonard’s skipper host

 

little bluestem

Schizachyrium scoparium

X

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

2’-3’

 

summer/ fall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian skipper, dusted skipper, and swarthy skipper host

 

indian grass

Sorghastrum nutans

X

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

4’-6’

 

summer/ fall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

prairie cordgrass

Spartinapectinata

X

 

 

X

X

 

 

 

4’-7’

 

summer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

prairie dropseed

Sporobolus heterolepsis

X

 

 

 

 

X

X

 

1’-3’

 

summer/ fall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Find Out More
Find more publications in the Protecting Pollinators series by visiting the Purdue Extension Education Store www.edustore.purdue.edu


Cover photoby Derek Luchik.


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This publication was partially funded by a Purdue Extension Issue-Based Action Team (IBAT) award.

April 2017


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