Issue 14, July 7, 2016 • USDA-NIFA Extension IPM Grant
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As you can see from the following pheromone trap report, a considerable number of western bean cutworm moths have emerged and been captured in the last week. Some pest managers have reported finding egg masses ready to hatch (purple color) on non-traited corn. As mentioned last week, the female moths seem to have a preference for egg-laying on the upright leaves just before tasseling. The hatched larvae will crawl immediately to the whorl or leaf axils, depending on corn’s growth stage, for protection while feeding on leaf tissue and/or pollen. The following video, showing early infestation and damage, may be helpful:
Western Bean Cutworm Egg Masses and Young Larvae
As often happens, when weed control is delayed in fields, unknown insects become nuisance pests to the growing crop. This week, a crop consultant in northeastern Indiana, sent pictures with the “what is this” question. We’ve had similar encounters with the redheaded flea beetle in past years. They have been observed feeding on corn leaves and silks, as well as soybean foliage. The redheaded flea beetle (Systena frontalis) normally feeds on weed species, especially giant ragweed. When weeds are burned down the beetles look no further than the crop for food. This feeding, which catches attention, is nothing more than superficial and certainly doesn’t warrant treatment.
6/23/16 - 6/29/16
|Adams||Kaminsky/New Era Ag||0||3|
|Clay||Bower/Ceres Solutions/Bowling Green||0||0|
|Clay||Bower/Ceres Solutions/Clay City||0||lost trap|
|Clinton||Emanuel/Boone Co. CES||0||0|
|Elkhart||Kauffman/Crop Tech Inc.||9||58|
|Fayette||Schelle/Falmouth Farm Supply Inc.||0||0|
|Fulton||Jenkins/N. Central Coop-Rochester||0||23|
|Fulton||Jenkins/N. Central Coop-Kewana||2||91|
|Gibson||Schmitz/Gibson Co. CES||0||0|
|Hamilton||Truster/Reynolds Farm Equipment||0||0|
|Jay||Shrack/Ran Del Agri Services||0||0|
|Jay||Temple/Jay County CES|
|Lake||Moyer/Dekalb Hybrids, Shelby||25||93|
|Lake||Moyer/Dekalb Hybrids, Schneider||19||156|
|LaPorte||Rocke/Agri-Mgmt Solutions, Wanatah||50||120|
|Madison||Truster/Reynolds Farm Equip.||0||1|
|Miami||Myers/Myers Ag Service|
|Newton||Moyer/Dekalb Hybrids, Lake Village||39||263|
|Polaski||Capouch/M&R Ag Services||1||4|
|Rush||Schelle/Falmouth Farm Supply Inc.||0||0|
|Shelby||Fisher/Shelby Co. Co-Op||0||0|
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Over the last two weeks we have received increasing reports of stressed or dying soybeans. In many cases, these symptoms have been most noticeable in areas that have received heavy rainfall. The warm, wet conditions have been favorable for Phytophthora root and stem rot, but also other root diseases, and it is important to accurately diagnose the cause of the symptoms observed in a field.
The classic symptoms of Phytophthora root and stem rot are soft, discolored roots and a dark brown lesion that is visible above and below the soil line and moves up the stem (Figure 1). Plants may be stunted and die prematurely. However, the dark brown stem lesion may not always be present, especially if the soybean variety has partial resistance to Phytophthora. In several instances, we have confirmed Phytophthora root and stem rot in soybean plants without seeing the typical brown lesion on the stem. We have also diagnosed Phytophthora root and stem rot in several fields where varieties with the Rps1k gene were planted. This Rps gene has typically performed well against Phytophthora stem rot in Indiana, but it is not infallible. Anne Dorrance of Ohio State University provided a nice summary of how Rps genes work and the level of disease control that can be expected from varieties with these genes in a recent newsletter article that can be accessed here: http://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/it-phytophthora-stem-rot-it-flooding-injury-or-it-both. In fields where the disease is confirmed, take note of the Rps genes (if any) in the variety, and the level of reported partial resistance in the variety. The next time these fields are planted to soybean, select varieties with Rps genes and a high level of partial resistance to Phytophthora stem rot.
Although Phytophthora root and stem rot is receiving the most attention in the state, we have also observed stunting, root discoloration and premature plant death associated with Fusarium and Rhizoctonia root rots in recent weeks. Therefore, if you are seeing patches of soybeans that are discolored, prematurely dying, or stunted, remember that to accurately determine the specific organism responsible for a suspected disease issue, it is necessary to submit samples to a diagnostic lab such as the Purdue Plant and Pest Diagnostic Lab, https://www.ppdl.purdue.edu/PPDL/index.html.
For more information about Phytophthora root and stem rot, see: Dorrance, A.E., D. Mills, A.E. Robertson, M.A. Draper, L. Giesler, and A.Tenuta, 2007. Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2007-0830-07 Reviewed 2012. http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/fungi/Oomycetes/Pages/PhytophthoraSojae.aspx.
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