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Master notes styles
These slides have been compiled by Cliff
Sadof, from a wide range of sources.
Many of these slides come from presenations prepared by Indiana Extension
Educators for training Master Gardeners.
These Extension Educators
include, Doug Akers, Jeff Burbrink,
Larry Caplan, Steve Mayer, and Phil Tocco.
Other slides come from
presentations produced by Rick Foster, Corey Gerber,
Tim Gibb and Cliff
Sadof, of the Department of Entomology at Purdue and Dave Shetlar, of the
Department of Entomology at Ohio State University.
Instruct Master Gardeners to use the URL
to get bulletins.
This what Master Gardeners are expected
This is only a pest when it is in your
Otherwise these lady beetles eat
your landscape and
Use this example to generate a discussion about pests.
This slide describes what is meant when
we use names to describe groups of animals.
Japanese beetles are in the
scarab, or dung beetle family of the order of beetles. Beetles are insects, which are part of a
larger group of animals with exoskeletons called arthropods.
Insects and mites are arthropods. These are some arthropods you may know.
Question: How diverse are insects in relation to the other animals and
plants you might know???
Answer: Very diverse. There are more species of insects than any
other group of organisms.
Most insects are not yet described.
How many and what kind of insects are
you likely to encounter in your yard and garden?
Very few are pests. Most are
beneficial or harmless.
These are the shared characteristics of
arthropods that will be covered.
When arthropods grow, they shed their
skins. This cicada adult (green) is emerging
from an immature stage on the trunk of a tree.
Insects with incomplete metamorphosis
have an immature that resembles the adult.
There is NO wormlike intermediate.
Examples include a grasshopper and
a squash bug.
Characteristics of complete
Note that as insect nymphs grow, they
increase in size. Only the adult stage has
No Butterflies are the adult
Only immature stages
(caterpillars get larger).
Insects do not grow after they molt into the adult stage.
Insects with complete metamorphosis have
a worm-like intermediate stage that can grow.
Adult flies lay eggs on food sources for their larva.
A larva (larvae
plural) is the worm like stage that feeds and molts
until it grows into a pupa.
A pupa (pupae plural) is the transitional stage between larval and
Other examples include beetles, butterflies, wasps, and lacewings.
Key features of an insect with complete
Japanese beetles have complete metamorphosis.
Adults feed on leaves and flowers.
Immature grubs feed on turf.
This has important consequences for control.
These are the shared characteristics of
The head is responsible for perception ingestion.
Ocelli perception of light and dark
All insects have the same mouthparts.
Many insects like the grasshopper have chewing mouthparts.
The mouthparts of sucking insects have been modified into sucking
The arrow points to the tubelike mouthparts of an aphid.
Note the beak at the base of the tube
like mouth part is adapted for piercing leaf tissue.
The thorax is responsible for insect movement
Legs- walking, running, digging, swimming
Note the spines on the hind legs of this
grasshopper are used for defense against predators.
Legs are segmented.
A Femur is like a thigh,
A Tibia is like a shin.
A Tarsus is like a foot.
The abdomen is where the insect digests
its food and keeps its reproductive organs.
Note the segmented structure of the
insect abdomen and the location of the spiracles, or breathing holes.
The insect put together. Can you
find the following parts?
Head, Thorax, Abdomen.
Wing, Antennae, Leg
Spiracle, Eye. Mouth, ovipositor
Front, Mid, and Hind leg
Insects have a ventral nerve chord
(yellow) with nerve centers (ganglia) to control movement of each
The digestive tract (green) goes through the center of the
insect, with nutrient absorbtion occurs in the abdomen.
system (yellow) open Blood flows from
the back to the front moving nutrients toward the brain.
Insect breath through spiracles into a
network of tubes called the tracheal system
The tube is coiled like a vacuum cleaner hose.
Air diffuses through the tracheoles are
the finest tubes into the insect body fluid.
They are similar to the
alveoli in our lungs.
This slide introduces you to the diagnosis of insect problems.
This is similar to what you have learned for disease diagnosis.
Knowing where an insect or mite feeds on
a plant can help
you diagnose the problem.
This slide introduces how insects and mites attack plants.
- discoloration, distortion, defoliation, mining, or galls
girdling, shoot tip boring, galls
We are now going to review the different
kinds of insects you may encounter by the kinds of injury they do to
This first group, has chewing mouthparts and feeds on leaves.
It includes beetles, wasps and sawflies, moths and butterflies, and grasshoppers
and their relatives
Chewing insects produce characteristic kinds of defoliation.
Some young caterpillars can skeletonize leaves.
Some old caterpillars completely defoliate leaves.
Black vine weevil ( a root feeding grub
pest) leaves a characteristic irregular notch in the adult stage
Leaf cutter bees (a beneficial pollinator) use leaves when making nests.
Beetles and weevils are notorious defoliators.
What kind of defoliation does a Japanese beetle produce?
What kind of defoliation dies a black vine weevil produce? (Leaf
Note that the grubs of both these species feed on roots.
Grubs, the immature stages of beetles
feed on the roots many landscape plants.
White grubs feed on turf.
The grubs of black vine weevils feed on the roots of shrubs.
Soil applied systemic insecticides can make plant roots poisonous and kill grubs.
This will be discussed later when we cover Japanese beetles in detail.
Sawflies are broad wasted wasps that do
The larvae are caterpillar
like and defoliate plants
There are common species that feed on pines and hollyhocks.
Name means scaled wings.
The larvae, also known as caterpillars are common defoliators.
This group of closely related orders has been called the Orthoptera.
Many of these are omnivorous.
cockroaches have complete or incomplete metamorphosis?
Note the bean shaped egg case is characteristic of a this group.
If you have cockroaches and still find these beans the problem is not yet controlled.
Decomposers and carnivores (the tendency toward cannibalism
selects for fast runners and good
Members of this order are built to run
fast in and hide in tight places.
They are cannibalistic!! YOU would want to hide too.
Many are nocturnal. These are found in leaf
litter out doors and in dwellings.
Slugs feed on leaves low to the ground.
Reduce moisture by watering in the morning.
Pull back mulch.
Lets discuss insects with sucking mouthparts.
How do they injure plants?
These insects have sucking mouthparts.
Most homopterans suck plant sap and produce liquid excrement.
Armored scales do not produce the liquid excrement.
They cover themselves with a waxy shell.
Liquid excrement (AKA Honeydew) of this
tuliptree scale became infested with a
black fungus called sooty mold.
Sucking insects remove chlorophyll and leave white stippled marks.
Both spider mites and lacebugs can cause these white stipples.
In the next few slides you will see how lacebug injury can be separated from spider
The stippling on these leaves is caused by the sycamore lacebug.
Note the black fecal spots, and the oval eggs found on leaf undersides are typical
Spruce spider mite and hand lens (Steve
Note bronzed injury on old needles of
spruce spider mite. Peak spruce mite injury will often occur in late September
There are many species of spider mites in home gardens and landscapes.
Look for webs and eggs on stippled leaves to confirm the diagnosis.
Spider mites are not insects. They are in the class Acari and are more closely
related to spider mites.
Left to right squash plant bug a pest that causes squash vines to
4 lined plant bug (note 4 black lines
It produces circular scars
on leaves and is common on perennials.
Lacebugs are in the order Hemiptera.
Thrips are another group of insects that can cause stippling.
Like lacebugs they can leave some black spots on the leaf surface.
Thrips eggs are not black and visible like lacebug eggs.
Adults have feathery wings. Some
species can spread disease.
When sucking insects kills plant tissue
they deform plant growth when new tissue grows around dead tissue
When insects lay
they eggs inside the stems of trees they girdle twigs, and effectively cutting
them of the trees water and nutrient supply.
This causes twigs to wither, turn brown and drop.
Because there is little that can be done to
effectively manage these pests, it is important to learn their life cycles so
that you can effectively explain these problems to your clients.
Annual and periodical cicadas Tibicen spp, and Magicada
Order and Family:
Host Plants: Many deciduous trees
Damage and Diagnosis:
adults lay enough eggs in twigs they can kill them.
This is primarily a problem on new nursery
stock, and when large numbers of periodical cicadas emerge.
Damaged twigs and branches have a series of
slits where females have laid their eggs.
Damage from the periodical cicada is most severe near mature stand of
trees where cicadas can complete their long life cycle. Adult periodical
cicadas have orange wings with black bodies and red legs.
In contrast damage from the annual or dog
day cicada is minimal.
Nymphs of all cicadas feed on roots of
Nymphs of annual cicadas feed
on roots from 2-5 years and those of periodical cicadas feed on roots for 13
or 17 years before they become adults.
Adult annual cicadas are present from mid-July to late summer.
After adult periodical cicadas emerge in
late May or early June, they fly for 6 weeks.
Male cicadas produce a shrill call that is quite distinctive.
When they emerge by the thousand, the shrill
call of the males to their mates is both distinctive and overwhelming.
During the adult flight period adults mate
and females lay egg in twigs.
weeks after eggs are laid a nymph hatches, feeds and drops to the ground to
dig for tree roots where they suck on plant sap.
Damage associated with root feeding has not
been measured and is assumed to be minimal.
Field trials with applications of broad
spectrum insecticides show that none can effectively reduce injury from the
Contact your local
Extension service to find out when and if periodical is expected in your
Discussing the issue with your
trees are covered
with cicadas will help you better manage the situation.
This cone nosed grasshopper is designed
to lay eggs into the soil.
Leaf mining insects feed between leaf surfaces.
Often the insects, or their excrement can be found by holding the leaf up into
Leaf mining can produce blotches (left) , or snake like mines
Systemic applied materials are effective (Spinosad and Imidacloprid)
Galls are made of plant tissue. They are produced in response to attacks
by a gall making insect.
In the war between insects and plants,
gall making represents a truce. Most
gall makers do not harm plant health.
The horned oak gall (pictured) is an exception.
HORNED OAK GALLS Callirhytis cornigera
(Osten Sacken). This tiny
wasp gall maker causes trees to produce large numbers of woody galls up to 2 inches
in diameter around the stems of pin and willow oak trees. These galls will
girdle and cause significant branch dieback. Female wasps emerge from woody
galls in early spring (April) and lay eggs into the
swelling leaf buds. Eggs hatch into
larvae that cause a blister like gall along the veins superficially resembling
the vein pocket gall of pin oak. In summer (June) adults fly from leaf
galls and lay eggs into twigs. The resulting galls
become visible the following spring and finish development
in about 3 years. Dogwood borers may also feed in young woody galls. Control.
Remove young expanding twig galls as soon
as they are visible in the spring. Cutting off old dried galls is not
necessary. Applications of insecticides can kill leaf galls, but do not reduce
the number of new stem galls produced.
Left- Cooleys spruce gall (top) and gall making adelgids (bottom)
Right- Hackberry nipple galls (top) and gall making psyllids (bottom)
Wood borers feed inside tree branches and trunks.
Provide adequate water (1 inch per week) to reduce problems with borers on trees.
trees killed by borers in the winter
reduce the spread of borers to healthy trees in the spring.
Borers attack trees that are under water
Watering trees is critical to reducing
The stand of pine in this photo has been infested by borers after a
Sanitation is critical to controlling stands of pines that are infested with borers.
Destruction and removal of trees and stumps
between October and April will kill overwintering stages, and reduce the
population in the area.
Follow up with
a spring application of a residual insecticide like Permethrin (Astro or
Eight) to kill stray beetles that may be available to attack trees.
Photos from left to right.
Pine die back at the Indiana Dunes State Park
Blue staining fungus (Ophiostoma) transmitted by bark beetles on this
(Ron Billings- Texas)
Pine and spruce engraver beetles (Kieth Douce University of Georgia)
The biology of the Asian Longhorned
Beetle (ALB) is typical of many longhorned beetles attacking trees.
is one generation of ALB each year.
Like other beetles, the ALB goes through 4 stages in its lifecycle.
Adult females chew out an egg niche in the bark of a live tree.
She lays a
single egg, about 0.5mm long, oval and white in color, in the egg
niche. Eggs hatch in 1 to 2 weeks.
Young larvae feed just below the bark while older larvae tunnel
into the sapwood.
push coarse sawdust and frass (fecal particles) out of their galleries.
Larvae overwinter in tunnels and resume feeding
Pupation occurs in late
spring or early summer and adults may emerge from early to mid-summer.
chew an emergence hole, about one-half the size of a penny, and exit the
Adult beetles feed on the bark
of small shoots after hatching, but this feeding causes little damage to the
Each adult female can lay eggs
for 6 weeks or more and may produce 25 to 40 eggs during her lifetime.
Side view of bronze birch borer. Note
flat head, and metallic color. Keel shaped abdomen.
Ridged bark caused by bronze birch borer
Like most other borers, these insects thrive on stressed trees.
Healthy, well fertilized trees can are less
susceptible to borers.
Mulch trees to
prevent mower injury, moderate soil temperatures, and soil moisture.
Infested trees, should be treated with
a long-lasting residual insecticide when adults begin to fly.
Coat the leaves to kill the adults that feed
Coat the bark to kill larvae
that hatch from eggs.
imidacloprid on newly planted tree has been shown to reduce attacks of
transplants by bronze birch borer.
Dogwood borer a Clearwing borer moth, coat
Clearwing borers are a group of closely related
moths that superficially resemble wasps and bore into trees or stems. Key aspects of their biology are summarized in
Order and Family: Lepidoptera:
common name of pests in this group usually includes that name of the host
plant that these borers attack.
and Diagnosis: Injured trunk or branches have loose or
pealing bark Sawdust-like excrement can be
seen coming borers that attack portions
of the tree that are above ground. Caterpillars beneath the bark are usually
creamy white in color. When adults emerge,
a brown straw-colored pupal skin is left hanging out of the trunk, or branch.
Those borers that attack at tree base or
just below the soil line may have excrement pellets and pupal skins hidden from view. Infested trees have dead limbs or
twigs. The clear wings, slender bodies and flight habits of adult moths in this
group cause them to superficially resemble
wasps. Unlike wasps, adult moths lack chewing mouth parts and have bodies that
are covered with scales. Adult moths have straw like mouth parts that
are used for sucking nectar. For good color plates of all clearwing
borers that damage trees in the eastern United States, obtain a copy of "A guide to clearwing borers of the North
Central United States", NCR
Publication No. 394, from your local extension office.
Sap suckers and woodpeckers are birds who feed on plant sap and insects.
These birds systematically scour the trunk and make holes in straight
Borer holes often show where borers have left the trunk of a tree.
Holes are randomly arranged.
Adult Beetles emerge from trees covered
with spores of the fungus that causes Dutch Elm Disease
Adults feed on
shoots and spread disease down the branches to the tree trunk.
This Linden leaf has been chewed.
The plant bug and its eggs in the picture is a sucking insect. It has no teeth
to chew leaves. It is predaceous.
There is no pest in this photo.
Identification is a crucial step when
trying to help people with pest problems.
Insects are attacked by 3 kinds of
Predators are organisms that must
consume many pests over the course of their lifetime.
From left to right.
Lady beetle larvae feeding on aphids
Minute pirate bug feeding on caterpillar egg
Spined soldier bug feeding on Mexican bean beetle
The hover fly feeds on aphids.
Learn to recognize its maggot by the white stripe on its back.
Note difference between Flies (Diptera) and wasps (Hymenoptera).
Flies have 2 wings- wasps have 4.
Flies have wide waist, stinging wasps have narrow waist.
Antenna of fly is bristle like, stinging wasp antenna is long and
Eyes of fly is much larger than eyes of wasp.
Predatory larvae and adults.
Eggs are laid on filaments above the leaf surface to prevent young from consuming
brothers and sisters.
parasitic wasp laid an egg into an aphid.
hatches into a larva that consumes the body.
last part eaten is the heart because the parasite needs the aphid to be alive.
Parasitized aphid (left) looks is
straw colored and looks puffed.
Eggs of parasitic fly are laid on the caterpillar of an army worm
Parasitized tomato hornworm (bottom) shows silken pupae and adult wasp.
There are both predaceous and parasitic species of wasps.
Insects can also get diseases.
These include bacteria ( Bacillus thuringiensis)
Fungi (Beauvaria basiana)
Virus (Nuclear polyhedrosis virus).
If you see diseased insects in your garden, you may want to try to spread it around
by putting sick insects in a blender with water and spraying the mixture on
IPM is a way to integrate the use of these varied control methods.
The following pesticides are somewhat compatible the natural enemies that help
control pests in your landscapes.
is made from and extract of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT).
are separate BTs that kill caterpillars, flies, beetles and mosquitoes.
For more information on microbial insecticides, including benefits and problems
associated with their uses, visit: http://www.entsoc.org/publicaffairs/position_papers/microbial.htm#BENEFITS
Derived from plants these materials tend to:
short lived in activity
or poisoning agents.
Neem is the one of these materials that works the best.
From right to left
Cinnamon, garlic, neem tree extract, hot pepper
is little or no research done on the efficacy of these products.
For more information on Neem visit:http://entm29.entm.purdue.edu/acorn/anews5.htm;
more information about Botanical insecticides visit: http://www.hort.cornell.edu/gardening/fctsheet/egfactsh/botanica.html
are active only when wet.
to kill half of the pests, and allow the beneficials to recolonize the other
half after the material dries.
For more information on insecticidal soaps visit: http://entm29.entm.purdue.edu/acorn/anews6.htm;
For more information on Horticultural oils, visit: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/INSECT/05569.html
This bio-insecticide is compatible with
biological control and very effective against its target pests --the compound
causes paralysis of the pest in about one hour. The pest may be present on
your plant but it will be unable to eat--.
What pests does it kill?
Many caterpillars, sawflies, leaf beetles (not JB), tip moths, thrips, gall midges,
fly leaf miners (not BLM), cat fleas.
For more information on Spinosad (also called Bulls-Eye
Bioinsecticide) visit: http://entm29.entm.purdue.edu/acorn/anews4.htm
These generalities may aid you in timing
For any insect you need to follow this
The Japanese beetle is a good example of
how to integrate a variety of control tactics.
How to ID. Bulletins for more specific information.
Preventative curative and rescue
treatments are explained later.
There are more than one species of white
grub attacking turf.
Bagworms are a common pest.
Here is how to control it.
Two you may want to know about
· Anoplura have piercing sucking mouthparts
Anoplura- Sucking Lice
allows transmission of
disease typhus and rickettsia (by head lice).
Mallophaga- Chewing lice
less of a problem for humans although some bird lice can bite and cause an