Your browser does not support JavaScript!
Click to edit Master notes styles
Second Level
Third Level
Fourth Level
Fifth Level
These slides have been compiled by Cliff Sadof, from a wide range of sources.  Many of these slides come from presenations prepared by Indiana Extension Educators for training Master Gardeners. These Extension Educators include, Doug Akers, Jeff Burbrink,  Larry Caplan, Steve Mayer, and Phil Tocco. Other slides come from presentations produced by Rick Foster, Corey Gerber, Tim Gibb and Cliff Sadof, of the Department of Entomology at Purdue and Dave Shetlar, of the Department of Entomology at Ohio State University. 
Instruct Master Gardeners to use the URL to get bulletins.
This what Master Gardeners are expected to learn.
This is only a pest when it is in your house.  Otherwise these lady beetles eat aphids in  your landscape and garden.
Use this example to generate a discussion about pests.
This slide describes what is meant when we use names to describe groups of animals. Japanese beetles are in the scarab, or dung beetle family of the order of beetles.  Beetles are insects, which are part of a larger group of animals with exoskeletons called arthropods.
Insects and mites are arthropods.  These are some arthropods you may know.

Question: How diverse are insects in relation to the other animals and plants  you might know??? Answer:  Very diverse.  There are more species of insects than any other group of organisms.
Most insects are not yet described.
How many and what kind of insects are you likely to encounter in your yard and garden?
Very few are pests.  Most are beneficial or harmless.
These are the shared characteristics of arthropods that will be covered.
When arthropods grow, they shed their skins.  This cicada adult (green) is emerging from an immature stage on the trunk of a tree.
Insects with incomplete metamorphosis have an immature that resembles the adult.  There is NO wormlike intermediate.
Examples include a  grasshopper and a squash bug.
Characteristics of complete metamorphosis
Note that as insect nymphs grow, they increase in size.  Only the adult stage has wings.
No – Butterflies are the adult stage.  Only immature stages (caterpillars get larger).
Insects do not grow after they molt into the adult stage.
Insects with complete metamorphosis have a worm-like intermediate stage that can grow.
Adult flies lay eggs on food sources for their larva. 
A larva (larvae plural) is the worm like stage that feeds and molts until it grows into a pupa.
A pupa (pupae plural) is the transitional stage between larval and adult flies.
Other examples include beetles, butterflies, wasps, and lacewings.
Key features of an insect with complete metamorphosis.
Japanese beetles have complete metamorphosis.
Adults feed on leaves and flowers.
Immature grubs feed on turf.
This has important consequences for control.
These are the shared characteristics of insects.
Real insect
The head is responsible for perception ingestion.
Antennae- smell
Eyes – see
Ocelli – perception of light and dark
Mouthparts vary
All insects have the same mouthparts.
Many insects like the grasshopper have chewing mouthparts.
The mouthparts of sucking insects have been modified into sucking tubes. 
The arrow points to the tubelike mouthparts of an aphid.
 Note the beak at the base of the tube like mouth part is adapted for piercing leaf tissue.
The thorax is responsible for insect movement –
Wings (flight)
Legs- walking, running, digging, swimming
Note the spines on the hind legs of this grasshopper are used for defense against predators.
Legs are segmented.
A Femur is like  a thigh,
A Tibia is like a shin.
A Tarsus is like a foot.
The abdomen is where the insect digests its food and keeps its reproductive organs.
Note the segmented structure of the insect abdomen and the location of the spiracles, or breathing holes.
The insect put together.  Can you find the following parts?
Head, Thorax, Abdomen.
Wing, Antennae, Leg
Spiracle, Eye. Mouth, ovipositor
Front, Mid, and Hind leg
Insects have a ventral nerve chord (yellow) with nerve centers (ganglia) to control movement of each segment. The digestive tract (green) goes through the center of the insect, with nutrient absorbtion occurs in the abdomen. The circulatory system (yellow) open   Blood flows from the back to the front moving nutrients toward the brain.
Insect breath through spiracles into a network of tubes called the tracheal system
The tube is coiled like a vacuum cleaner hose.
 Air diffuses through the tracheoles are the finest tubes into the insect body fluid. They are similar to the alveoli in our lungs.
This slide introduces you to the diagnosis of insect problems.
This is similar to what you have learned for disease diagnosis.
Knowing where an insect or mite feeds on a plant can help  you diagnose the problem.
This slide introduces how insects and mites attack plants.
-Leaves, - discoloration, distortion, defoliation, mining, or galls
-Stems – girdling, shoot tip boring, galls
-Roots- chewing
We are now going to review the different kinds of insects you may encounter by the kinds of injury they do to plants.
This first group, has chewing mouthparts and feeds on leaves.
It includes beetles, wasps and sawflies, moths and butterflies, and grasshoppers and their relatives
Chewing insects produce characteristic kinds of defoliation.
Some young caterpillars can skeletonize leaves.
Some old caterpillars completely defoliate leaves.
Black vine weevil ( a root feeding grub pest) leaves a characteristic irregular notch in the adult stage
Leaf cutter bees (a beneficial pollinator) use leaves when making nests.
Beetles and weevils are notorious defoliators. 
What kind of defoliation does a Japanese beetle produce? (Skeletonization)
What kind of defoliation dies a black vine weevil produce? (Leaf notching)
Note that the grubs of both these species feed on roots.
Grubs, the immature stages of beetles feed on the roots many landscape plants.
White grubs feed on turf.
The grubs of black vine weevils feed on the roots of shrubs.
Soil applied systemic insecticides can make plant roots poisonous and kill grubs.
This will be discussed later when we cover Japanese beetles in detail.
Sawflies are broad wasted wasps that do NOT sting.  The larvae are caterpillar like and defoliate plants
There are common species that feed on pines and hollyhocks.
Identifying Characteristics
Name means scaled wings.
The larvae, also known as caterpillars are common defoliators.
This group of closely related orders has been called the Orthoptera.
Many of these are omnivorous.
 Do cockroaches have complete or incomplete metamorphosis?
Note the bean shaped egg case is characteristic of a this group.
If you have cockroaches and still find these “beans” the problem is not yet controlled.
Decomposers and carnivores (the tendency toward cannibalism selects for fast runners and good hiders)
Where found:
Members of this order are built to run fast in and hide in tight places.
They are cannibalistic!!  YOU would want to hide too. 
 Many are nocturnal. These are found in leaf litter out doors and in dwellings. 
Slugs feed on leaves low to the ground.
Reduce moisture by watering in the morning.
Pull back mulch. 
Use baits.
Let’s discuss insects with sucking mouthparts.
How do they injure plants?
These insects have sucking mouthparts.
Most homopterans suck plant sap and produce liquid excrement.
Armored scales do not produce the liquid excrement.  They cover themselves with a waxy shell.
Liquid excrement (AKA Honeydew) of this tuliptree scale  became infested with a black fungus called sooty mold.
Sucking insects remove chlorophyll and leave white stippled marks. 
Both spider mites and lacebugs can cause these white stipples. 
In the next few slides you will see how lacebug injury can be separated from spider mite injury.
The stippling on these leaves is caused by the sycamore lacebug.
Note the black fecal spots, and the oval eggs found on leaf undersides are typical of lacebugs.
Spruce spider mite and hand lens (Steve Meyer)
Note bronzed injury on old needles of spruce spider mite. Peak spruce mite injury will often occur in late September
There are many species of spider mites in home gardens and landscapes.
Look for webs and eggs on stippled leaves to confirm the diagnosis.
Spider mites are not insects. They are in the class Acari and are more closely related to spider mites.
Left to right – squash plant bug – a pest that causes squash vines to wilt,
 4 lined plant bug (note 4 black lines on wings).  It produces circular scars on leaves and is common on perennials.
Lacebugs are in the order Hemiptera.
Thrips are another group of insects that can cause stippling. 
Like lacebugs they can leave some black spots on the leaf surface.
Thrips eggs are not black and visible like lacebug eggs.
Adults have feathery wings.  Some species can spread disease.
When sucking insects kills plant tissue they deform plant growth when new tissue grows around dead tissue
Periodical cicada
When insects lay they eggs inside the stems of trees they girdle twigs, and effectively cutting them of the trees water and nutrient supply.  This causes twigs to wither, turn brown and drop.  Because there is little that can be done to effectively manage these pests, it is important to learn their life cycles so that you can effectively explain these problems to your clients.
Annual and periodical cicadas Tibicen spp, and Magicada spp.  
Order and Family:  Homoptera:  Cicadidae
Host Plants: Many deciduous trees
Damage and Diagnosis:  When adults lay enough eggs in twigs they can kill them.  This is primarily a problem on new nursery stock, and when large numbers of periodical cicadas emerge.  Damaged twigs and branches have a series of slits where females have laid their eggs.  Damage from the periodical cicada is most severe near mature stand of trees where cicadas can complete their long life cycle. Adult periodical cicadas have orange wings with black bodies and red legs.  In contrast damage from the annual or dog day cicada is minimal.  Biology:  Nymphs of all cicadas feed on roots of trees.   Nymphs of annual cicadas feed on roots from 2-5 years and those of periodical cicadas feed on roots for 13 or 17 years before they become adults.  Adult annual cicadas are present from mid-July to late summer.  After adult periodical cicadas emerge in late May or early June, they fly for 6 weeks.  Male cicadas produce a shrill call that is quite distinctive.  When they emerge by the thousand, the shrill call of the males to their mates is both distinctive and overwhelming.  During the adult flight period adults mate and females lay egg in twigs.  Several weeks after eggs are laid a nymph hatches, feeds and drops to the ground to dig for tree roots where they suck on plant sap.  Damage associated with root feeding has not been measured and is assumed to be minimal. Control:  Field trials with applications of broad spectrum insecticides show that none can effectively reduce injury from the periodical cicada.  Contact your local Extension service to find out when and if periodical is expected in your area.  Discussing the issue with your clients before  trees are covered with cicadas will help you better manage the situation.
This cone nosed grasshopper is designed to lay eggs into the soil.
Leaf mining insects feed between leaf surfaces.
Often the insects, or their excrement can be found by holding the leaf up into the light.
Leaf mining can produce blotches (left) , or snake like mines (right)
Systemic applied materials are effective (Spinosad and Imidacloprid)
Galls are made of plant tissue.  They are produced in response to attacks by a gall making insect. In the war between insects and plants, gall making represents a truce.  Most gall makers do not harm plant health.
The horned oak gall (pictured) is an exception.
HORNED OAK GALLS Callirhytis cornigera (Osten Sacken). This tiny wasp gall maker causes trees to produce large numbers of woody galls up to 2 inches in diameter around the stems of pin and willow oak trees. These galls will girdle and cause significant branch dieback. Female wasps emerge from woody galls in early spring (April) and lay  eggs  into  the  swelling  leaf  buds.    Eggs  hatch  into larvae that cause a blister like gall along the veins superficially resembling the vein pocket gall of pin oak.  In summer (June) adults fly from leaf galls and lay eggs into twigs.  The  resulting  galls  become  visible  the  following spring and finish development in about 3 years. Dogwood borers may also feed in young woody galls. Control.  Remove  young  expanding  twig  galls  as soon as they are visible in the spring. Cutting off old dried galls is not necessary. Applications of insecticides can kill leaf galls, but do not reduce the number of new stem galls produced.
Left- Cooley’s spruce gall (top) and gall making adelgids (bottom)
Right- Hackberry nipple galls (top) and gall making psyllids (bottom)
Wood borers feed inside tree branches and trunks.
Provide adequate water (1 inch per week) to reduce problems with borers on trees. Remove trees killed by borers in the winter  to reduce the spread of borers to healthy trees in the spring. 
Borers attack trees that are under water stress.  Watering trees is critical to reducing borer injury.
The stand of pine in this photo has been infested by borers after a drought.
Sanitation is critical to controlling stands of pines that are infested with borers.  Destruction and removal of trees and stumps between October and April will kill overwintering stages, and reduce the population in the area.  Follow up with a spring application of a residual insecticide like Permethrin (Astro or Eight) to kill stray beetles that may be available to attack trees.
Photos from left to right.
Pine die back at the Indiana Dunes State Park
Blue staining fungus (Ophiostoma) transmitted by bark beetles on this pine.  (Ron Billings- Texas)
Pine and spruce engraver beetles (Kieth Douce University of Georgia)
The biology of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) is typical of many longhorned beetles attacking trees. There is one generation of ALB each year.  Like other beetles, the ALB goes through 4 stages in its lifecycle. Adult females chew out an egg niche in the bark of a live tree.  She lays a  single egg, about 0.5mm long, oval and white in color, in the egg niche. Eggs hatch in 1 to 2 weeks.  Young larvae feed just below the bark while older larvae tunnel into the sapwood.  Larvae periodically push coarse sawdust and frass (fecal particles) out of their galleries.  Larvae overwinter in tunnels and resume feeding in spring.  Pupation occurs in late spring or early summer and adults may emerge from early to mid-summer. Adults chew an emergence hole, about one-half the size of a penny, and exit the tunnel.  Adult beetles feed on the bark of small shoots after hatching, but this feeding causes little damage to the tree.  Each adult female can lay eggs for 6 weeks or more and may produce 25 to 40 eggs during her lifetime.
Side view of bronze birch borer. Note flat head, and metallic color. Keel shaped abdomen.
Ridged bark caused by bronze birch borer
Like most other borers, these insects thrive on stressed trees.  Healthy, well fertilized trees can are less susceptible to borers.  Mulch trees to prevent mower injury, moderate soil temperatures, and soil moisture.   Infested trees, should be treated with a long-lasting residual insecticide when adults begin to fly.  Coat the leaves to kill the adults that feed on them.  Coat the bark to kill larvae that hatch from eggs.  Applications of imidacloprid on newly planted tree has been shown to reduce attacks of transplants by bronze birch borer.
Dogwood borer – a Clearwing borer moth, coat the
Clearwing borers are a group of closely related moths that superficially resemble wasps and bore into trees or stems. Key aspects of their biology are summarized in Table 2. 
Order and Family:  Lepidoptera: Sessiidae
Hosts: The common name of pests in this group usually includes that name of the host plant that these borers attack. Damage and Diagnosis:  Injured trunk or branches have loose or pealing bark Sawdust-like excrement can be seen coming  borers that attack portions of the tree that are above ground.  Caterpillars beneath the bark are usually creamy white in color. When adults emerge, a brown straw-colored pupal skin is left hanging out of the trunk, or branch. Those borers that attack at tree base or just below the soil line may have excrement pellets and pupal skins hidden from view.   Infested trees have dead limbs or twigs.   The clear wings, slender bodies and flight habits of adult moths in this group cause them to superficially resemble wasps. Unlike wasps, adult moths lack chewing mouth parts and have bodies that are covered with scales.  Adult moths have straw like mouth parts that are used for sucking nectar.  For good color plates of all clearwing borers that damage trees in the eastern United States, obtain a copy of "A guide to clearwing borers of the North Central United States", NCR Publication No. 394, from your local extension office.
Sap suckers and woodpeckers are birds who feed on plant sap and insects.
These birds systematically scour the trunk and make holes in straight lines.
Borer holes often show where borers have left the trunk of a tree.  Holes are randomly arranged.
Adult Beetles emerge from trees covered with spores of the fungus that causes Dutch Elm Disease Adults feed on shoots and spread disease down the branches to the tree trunk.
This Linden leaf has been chewed. 
The plant bug and its eggs in the picture is a sucking insect. It has no teeth to chew leaves. It is predaceous. There is no pest in this photo.   Identification is a crucial step when trying to help people with pest problems.
Insects are attacked by 3 kinds of organisms.
Predators are organisms that must consume many pests over the course of their lifetime.
From left to right.
Lady beetle larvae feeding on aphids
Minute pirate bug feeding on caterpillar egg
Spined soldier bug feeding on Mexican bean beetle
The hover fly feeds on aphids. 
Learn to recognize its maggot by the white stripe on its back.
Note difference between Flies (Diptera) and wasps (Hymenoptera).
Flies have 2 wings- wasps have 4.
Flies have wide waist, stinging wasps have narrow waist.
Antenna of fly is bristle like, stinging wasp antenna is long and bent.
Eyes of fly is much larger than eyes of wasp.
Predatory larvae and adults.
Eggs are laid on filaments above the leaf surface to prevent young from consuming brothers and sisters.
•This parasitic wasp laid an egg into an aphid.
•Egg hatches into a larva that consumes the body.
•The last part eaten is the heart because the parasite needs the aphid to be alive.
Parasitized aphid (left)  looks is straw colored and looks puffed.
Eggs of parasitic fly are laid on the caterpillar of an army worm (right).
Parasitized tomato hornworm (bottom) shows silken pupae and adult wasp.
There are both  predaceous and parasitic species of wasps.
Insects can also get diseases. 
These include bacteria ( Bacillus thuringiensis)
Fungi (Beauvaria basiana)
Virus (Nuclear polyhedrosis virus).
If you see diseased insects in your garden, you may want to try to spread it around by putting sick insects in a blender with water and spraying the mixture on your plants.
IPM is a way to integrate the use of these varied control methods.
The following pesticides are somewhat compatible the natural enemies that help control pests in your landscapes.
•This is made from and extract of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT).
•There are separate BT’s that kill caterpillars, flies, beetles and mosquitoes.
For more information on microbial insecticides, including benefits and problems associated with their uses, visit:
Derived from plants these materials tend to:
•Be short lived in activity
•Smothering or poisoning agents.
Neem is the one of these materials that works the best.
From right to left
Cinnamon, garlic, neem tree extract, hot pepper
•There is little or no research done on the efficacy of these products.
For more information on Neem visit:; For more information about Botanical insecticides visit: and
•Short-lived smothering agents
•These are active only when wet.
•Tend to kill half of the pests, and allow the beneficials to recolonize the other half after the material dries.
For more information on insecticidal soaps visit:; and
For more information on Horticultural oils, visit:
•This bio-insecticide is compatible with biological control and very effective against its target pests --the compound causes paralysis of the pest in about one hour. The pest may be present on your plant but it will be unable to eat--.
 What pests does it kill?
Many caterpillars, sawflies, leaf beetles (not JB), tip moths, thrips, gall midges, fly leaf miners (not BLM), cat fleas.
For more information on Spinosad (also called Bulls-Eye Bioinsecticide) visit:
These generalities may aid you in timing controls.
For any insect you need to follow this procedure.
The Japanese beetle is a good example of how to integrate a variety of control tactics.
How to ID.  Bulletins for more specific information.
Preventative curative and rescue treatments are explained later.
There are more than one species of white grub attacking turf.
Bagworms are a common pest.
Here is how to control it.
Two you may want to know about….
· Anoplura have piercing sucking mouthparts
Anoplura- Sucking Lice
Sucking habit  allows transmission of disease typhus and rickettsia (by head lice).
Mallophaga- Chewing lice  are less of a problem for humans although some bird lice can bite and cause an allergic.