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The life history information has been gleaned from the following sources, all of which are recommended as excellent field guides to the butterflies:

  • Shull, E. S., (1987) “The Butterflies of Indiana,” Indiana Academy of Science, Indiana University Press, Bloomington , IN. (out of print).
  • Bouseman, J. K. & J. G. Sternburg (2001) “Field Guide to Butterflies of Illinois ,” Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign , IL .
  • Brock, J. P. & K. Kaufman (2003) “Butterflies of North America,” Kaufman Focus Guides, Houghton Mifflin Co., New York , NY .
  • Walton, R. K. (1990) “Familiar Butterflies of North America,” National Audubon Society Pocket Guide, Alfred A. Knopf,





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