Soybean aphid uses native and exotic primary hosts found in North America, specifically Rhamnus cathartica L. and Rhamnus alnifolia L'Hér. The aphid's principal secondary host is soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.
Yield losses from direct damage have been recorded in field experiments in China, particularly when young soybean plants were infested. The soybean aphid can also damage soybean by vectoring plant viruses. Many viruses in U.S. soybean fields are transmitted by the soybean aphid, including Soybean dwarf virus, a persistently-transmitted virus, and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV).
Soybean aphid is known to occur in all counties in Indiana.