Under stressed conditions, many pine species appear to be susceptible to attack by Sirex noctilio. Pines attacked by Sirex noctilio in its native range include Pinus pinaster, P. sylvestris, P. nigra and P. pinea. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the main host is Pinus radiata. In Brazil and Uruguay, the main host is Pinus taeda. Other known hosts are North American pines species in plantations in the southern hemisphere including Pinus banksiana, P. contorta, P. echinata, P. elliottii, P. jeffreyi, P. palustris, P. patula, and P. ponderosa.
Sirex noctilio has become a major pest in the pine plantations of Australia, New Zealand, South America and South Africa. It has caused up to 80% tree mortality in the most susceptible plantations. It has the potential to cause significant tree mortality in North America, especially in overstocked and stressed pine plantations and natural forests. Attacked trees usually die within a few months, and the value of the tree for commercial products is quickly lowered.
The European woodwasp is not known to occur in Indiana.