There is some overlap in the synonymy of the two species (Anoplophora malasiaca (Thompson) and Anoplophora chinesis (Forster)), which are very closely related. It has been suggested that they are simply forms of a single species.
The citrus longhorned (CLHB) beetle infests a wide range of trees, which are important in agriculture, arboriculture, and forestry. These include representatives of the families of maple, birch, beech, chestnut, oak, laurel, ash, poplar and willow, elm, mulberry, walnut, sycamore, and yew.
Lingafelter and Hoebeke (2002) list more than 100 plants as recorded hosts of this insect. These include lime, sour orange, mandarin lime, pummelo, tangor, and sweet orange. Other reported hosts are pecan, Persian walnut, pear, peach, plum, cherry, white mulberry, paper mulberry, pigeon pea, Tea, jujube, Australian pine or beefwood tree, willow, hibiscus, China-berry or Indian lilac, apple, Chinese pear leaved crabapple, poplar or aspen, sycamore or plane tree, fig, litchi, oval kumquat, and Japanese red cedar.
CLHB is capable of surviving in small diameter trees and attacks bonsai.
If this insect were to become established in North America, the potential for economic impact is significant. Like the Asian longhorned beetle, this insect can kill trees. Furthermore the ability of this insect to attack a wide range of fruit and nut trees is expected to have a negative impact on food crops, as well as natural areas. This would result in higher production costs and higher costs to the consumer. Once established, it can be extremely difficult and expensive to eradicate. Establishment of this insect and associated tree mortality could cause major ecosystem disruptions and associated adverse effects on biodiversity. Furthermore, establishment would result in the increased use of pesticides to minimize their impact in citrus and fruit orchards. This insect has been recorded on pecan and many other forest trees. It is reasonable to assume that this insect could also reproduce on other walnut and other nut producing trees and have a negative impact on the animals that depend on these important mast-producing trees.
The citrus longhorned beetle is not known to occur in Indiana.